Journal of Aeronautics and Space Technologies https://jast.hho.msu.edu.tr/index.php/JAST <p><iframe src="https://jast.hho.msu.edu.tr/iFrames/summary.html" width="100%" height="180" frameborder="0" marginwidth="0" marginheight="0" scrolling="no"></iframe></p> National Defence University Turkish Air Force Academy en-US Journal of Aeronautics and Space Technologies 1304-0448 <p>The manuscript with title and authors is being submitted for publication in Journal of Aeronautics and Space Technologies. This article or a major portion of it was not published, not accepted and not submitted for publication elsewhere. If accepted for publication, I hereby grant the unlimited and all copyright privileges to Journal of Aeronautics and Space Technologies.<br><br>I declare that I am the responsible writer on behalf of all authors.&nbsp;</p> Case Study on Selecting Optimal Design for Main Central Cone of LEO Satellite https://jast.hho.msu.edu.tr/index.php/JAST/article/view/573 <p>Satellite structures must endure the stresses encountered during and after launch while providing support for additional equipment. The central cone plays a crucial role in achieving this objective, serving as one of the key structures of the satellite. The primary aim of this study is to assess and choose the most effective design for the central cone intended for Low Earth Orbit satellites. To fulfill this objective, six distinct central cone designs were created using Siemens NX, all subjected to identical boundary conditions. These designs encompass three different concepts which are grid, sandwich, and semi-monocoque utilizing both CFRP and aluminum materials. Each cone underwent a comprehensive evaluation, comparing factors such as weight, stiffness, buckling, and stress strength through analyses conducted with Simcenter 3D. In the second phase of the study, some design iterations were made to make the selected central cone more optimum for Low Earth Orbit satellites by performing same analyzes and applying same boundary conditions with previous phase.</p> Semih Türkoğlu Özge Özdemir Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Aeronautics and Space Technologies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-04-05 2024-04-05 17 Special Issue 1 18 Modulation Transfer Function Extraction and Parametric Effects https://jast.hho.msu.edu.tr/index.php/JAST/article/view/563 <p>We compute the optical transfer function and corresponding satellite image estimate in order to test validity of our modulation transfer function (MTF) extraction algorithms. The test targets allow MTF computation by using slanted edge and sine wave star patterns. Comparison of extracted MTFs with the input ones yields 0.013% mean squared error for the slanted edge method and less error for the sine wave star method. Various factors affect the extracted MTF results such as slanted edge angle, noise level, image restoration level, region of interest selection and oversampling factor. We investigated effect of each factor on the MTF extraction performance.</p> Kamil Boratay Alıcı Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Aeronautics and Space Technologies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-04-05 2024-04-05 17 Special Issue 19 29 A Hybrid Machine Learning Based Intrusion Detection System for MIL-STD-1553 https://jast.hho.msu.edu.tr/index.php/JAST/article/view/575 <p>MIL-STD-1553 is a communication standard developed by the US Department of Defense in 1975, primarily utilized in military aircraft, ground vehicles, and spacecraft. Due to its dual-redundant data bus structure, high reliability, and low error rate, it finds applications in safety-critical systems. Despite being considered secure at the time of its development, MIL-STD-1553-based systems have gradually become vulnerable over time, presenting easy targets for attackers. In this research, we propose the utilization of a new hybrid method based on machine learning and natural language processing for MIL-STD-1553, aiming to perform anomaly-based intrusion detection. In doing so, we employ Stochastic Gradient Descent and BERT algorithms, previously unused for intrusion detection in the MIL-STD-1553 system. The proposed system was experimentally evaluated against cyber-attacks. We observed that the hybrid intrusion detection system provides satisfactory results in detecting intrusions on MIL-STD-1553 data bus. Overall, experimental results show that the proposed system may be used to detect intrusions on MIL-STD-1553 based communications.</p> Yunus Emre Çiloğlu Serif Bahtiyar Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Aeronautics and Space Technologies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-04-05 2024-04-05 17 Special Issue 30 46 Taking Advantage of Geomagnetic Storms for B-Dot Attitude Control in Small Satellites https://jast.hho.msu.edu.tr/index.php/JAST/article/view/565 <p>The geomagnetic field models are presented with the external field influences taken into account. Magnetometers detect the external field, although most geomagnetic field models do not account for it. It is crucial to take into account how the external field affects the small satellite's other components. Furthermore, variations in the external field have the ability to affect the satellite's orbit and modify the spacecraft's drag, which could result in an altitude decrease and, eventually, mission failure. Consequently, to guarantee a successful mission, a comprehensive comprehension of the external field's influence on the small satellite's subsystems is required. In this work, the magnetorquers apply the magnetic control during the nanosatellite's detumbling phase. Although magnetic control cannot achieve three-axis control instantaneously, it can in near-polar trajectories due to the continuous variation of the magnetic field. In order to determine whether the geomagnetic storms may be exploited to our advantage by producing greater field variations, this study focuses on the extent to which it contributes to the magnetic control of the small satellites.</p> Anil Taha Balkir Demet Cilden-Guler Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Aeronautics and Space Technologies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-04-05 2024-04-05 17 Special Issue 47 64 Modeling-Simulation of Pre-Apogee Trajectories and Stability for Low Altitude Unguided Sounding Rockets https://jast.hho.msu.edu.tr/index.php/JAST/article/view/574 <p>In this study, a trajectory simulation is developed in order to estimate pre-apogee flight parameters of low altitude rockets. It is intended to evolve a mathematical model of trajectory of rocket and provide a perspective for design and performance analysis. The rocket’s equations of motion of are integrated using the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. First, the variation of altitude, velocity, acceleration, and pitch angle values of the rocket with time during flight are investigated. Secondly, the center of pressure and center of gravity are dynamically calculated to determine changes in the rocket's static margin during flight. This approach allows the simulation to provide information regarding the stability of the rocket. The accuracy of the numerical results is verified by comparing them to real flight data and an open source software. For this purpose, two rockets with design parameters and real flight data, previously launched to different altitudes, are used in the study. This research specifically focuses on orbital simulation and stability of unguided, low-altitude, subsonic sounding rockets and highlights the importance of modeling and simulation in the design and optimization of rockets.</p> Ahmet Nuri Yılmaz Melahat Cihan Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Aeronautics and Space Technologies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-04-05 2024-04-05 17 Special Issue 65 91 Design and Analysis of Optical Telescope Subsystem https://jast.hho.msu.edu.tr/index.php/JAST/article/view/592 <p>In the realm of space exploration, there is a notable upsurge in advanced remote imaging systems, particularly in CubeSats, owing to their efficiency and increasing payload capacities. These small satellites now host various mission payloads, significantly enhancing remote sensing capabilities. Optical systems, especially those with reflector optical telescope subsystems, play a pivotal role in improving CubeSat image quality, enabling high-resolution remote sensing. This study delves into the operational mechanisms of these systems, providing examples of CubeSat payloads with detailed technical insights. A key focus is the design and analysis of a reflector optical telescope payload subsystem tailored for CubeSats. Results highlight the subsystem's effectiveness, offering valuable insights into optimizing CubeSat imaging capabilities. Ground analysis further validates its real-world performance. In summary, reflector optical telescope payload subsystem was designed for CubeSats, analysis results were obtained and ground analysis was performed.</p> Alper Şanlı Tuncay Yunus Erkeç Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Aeronautics and Space Technologies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-04-05 2024-04-05 17 Special Issue 92 101 MTF-Based Performance Comparison of Techniques for Deblurring Optical Satellite Imagery https://jast.hho.msu.edu.tr/index.php/JAST/article/view/566 <p>Blurring is a significant concern in electro-optical satellite imagery due to its negative effect on image quality, which is caused by an undesirable loss of bandwidth. Blurred images and compromised image quality may result from atmospheric distortions, camera aberrations, and relative motion during the imaging process. Deblurring is thus a process used to restore deteriorated images, reduce blur, and recover the original image. The major type of blur explored in this study is Gaussian blur, and its effects on the image are investigated by applying the blur in equal proportions. Furthermore, influence of blur on the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) of an electro-optic satellite image as well as the impacts of deblurring techniques, namely the Richardson-Lucy Deconvolution Algorithm, the Regularization Filter, and the Blind Deconvolution Algorithm on MTF values, were explored.</p> Necip Gökhan Kasapoğlu Onur Ozan Gizem Kaya Gizem Tarhan Melisa Doğan Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Aeronautics and Space Technologies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-04-05 2024-04-05 17 Special Issue 102 115 Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Thickness Effect on the Cambered Airfoils at Low Reynolds Numbers https://jast.hho.msu.edu.tr/index.php/JAST/article/view/597 <p>In this study, experimental and numerical study for the cambered airfoils was conducted at Re = 1.5x105 and Re = 2.5x105 and different angles of attack. In the experimental analysis, oil-flow visualization and force measurement techniques were utilized. For numerical analysis, the k-w SST transition model was used to predict the flow over the cambered airfoils. The time-dependent aerodynamic force coefficients of the cambered NACA2412, NACA2415 and NACA2418 airfoils pointed out the force fluctuations formations due to unsteady flow on the airfoils. Whereas the force coefficient increased as the airfoil thickness increased, a decrease in the lift coefficient was observed due to adverse pressure gradients. Moreover, as the airfoil thickness increased, the separation occurred earlier due to the effect of adverse pressure gradients, so it got closer to the leading edge and became shorter. However, the prediction of the separation point was delayed in numerical analysis and the prediction of the reattachment points was more consistent.</p> Muhammer Ayvazoğlu Sinem Keskin Rumeysa Şahin Mehmet Sincar Eren Anıl Sezer Halil Hakan Açıkel Mustafa Özden Mustafa Serdar Genç Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Aeronautics and Space Technologies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-04-05 2024-04-05 17 Special Issue 116 134 Development of a Stabilizing Adaptive Feedback Control System for Helicopter Gun Turrets https://jast.hho.msu.edu.tr/index.php/JAST/article/view/587 <p>This study introduces a stabilizing controller design for a helicopter gun turret system using an adaptive backstepping control approach. To model the gun turret system, a two-degree-of-freedom manipulator dynamics is employed, which enables precise control over the weapon pointing mechanism. The proposed controller design utilizes an adaptive backstepping control strategy to ensure system stability and robustness against disturbances such as firing and other operational conditions. Additionally, the design includes an advanced feedback mechanism that dynamically adjusts to changes in the helicopter's flight dynamics, further enhancing control accuracy. Simulation results show the efficacy of the controller, achieving stable and precise control of the gun turret system. The study offers a simplified model to enhance the performance of helicopter gun turret systems, with potential applications in military ground and naval vehicles. The proposed controller design is a promising solution to improve the precision and stability of the gun turret system, contributing to safer and more efficient defense systems.</p> Mustafa Tolga Yavuz Caglar Uyulan Ibrahim Ozkol Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Aeronautics and Space Technologies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-04-05 2024-04-05 17 Special Issue 135 159 Formation Cluster Satellite Architecture Via Oriented and Colored LEDs https://jast.hho.msu.edu.tr/index.php/JAST/article/view/601 <p>In this study, a new technique for evaluating the target satellite's relative states in the analysis of cluster satellite motion is presented. Within closed constellation architectures, various techniques for sensor selection are employed to analyze the motion of target satellites. Alongside Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS)-based sensors, the utilization of visual-based sensors has witnessed significant adoption, particularly in tandem with advancements in technology. This study aims to address the computational complexity and challenges associated with line-of-sight vector calculations by proposing a directed and color-coded light source approach as a solution to overcome the difficulties encountered with visual-based sensors.</p> Tuncay Yunus ERKEC Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Aeronautics and Space Technologies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-04-05 2024-04-05 17 Special Issue 160 181 Drone Wars 3D: A Game-Based Simulation Platform for Testing Aerial Defence Strategies Against Drone Swarms https://jast.hho.msu.edu.tr/index.php/JAST/article/view/572 <p>Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), commonly referred to as "drones", have received a notable surge in recent years, particularly within military contexts. In this study, a simulation platform was developed to assess the viability of employing drone swarms as a defensive mechanism against opposing drones. The study encompasses diverse tactical approaches including the arrangement of attacking and defending drones, the role of drone launchers, and the critical factors of detection and response time. The results show the effectiveness of drone swarms, machine guns, anti-aircraft guns, laser guns and surface-to-air missiles against swarms of attacking drones. The findings provide a comprehensive insight into the potential performance of these countermeasures, laying the groundwork for the formulation of effective defence strategies against the emerging threat of drone swarms.</p> Gökhan KARADENİZ Ahmet ÖZCAN Mehmet BAYRAM Gökhan İNCE Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Aeronautics and Space Technologies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-04-05 2024-04-05 17 Special Issue 182 207 Certification Compliant Performance Analysis and Requirements Management of an Electrically Powered General Aviation Aircraft https://jast.hho.msu.edu.tr/index.php/JAST/article/view/593 <p>This article presents an implementation of a requirements validation toolchain for the certification-compliant performance analysis of an electrically powered general aviation aircraft. As part of the dtec.bw project ELAPSED, a novel approach for an electric propulsion system for an aircraft of the EASA certification specification class CS-22 is developed. Predefined requirements for the aircraft must be met by the design in order to comply with the CS-22 certification rules, such as a maximum take-off distance of 500 meters. Other requirements defined by the manufacturer or customer can also be easily added. A toolchain providing bidirectional traceability from the requirements to the test results has been established to validate the feasibility of the aircraft and system requirements and their compliance with the certification standards. This toolchain consists of Polarion PLM for requirements management and MATLAB/Simulink for mission evaluation using a non-linear 6-DoF simulation model for the respective aircraft. Two in-house tools called SimPol and Tico provide connectivity and round-tripping between Polarion and Simulink. The application of this toolchain is presented in this article using a test run with 3 requirements.</p> Luca Hein Purav Panchal Stephan Myschik Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Aeronautics and Space Technologies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-04-05 2024-04-05 17 Special Issue 208 218 Rising Threats: Privacy and Security Considerations in the IoD Landscape https://jast.hho.msu.edu.tr/index.php/JAST/article/view/596 <p>The Internet of Drones (IoD) is an emerging field that has attracted significant attention due to its potential applications in various domains. However, IoD's open nature and wireless communication make it vulnerable to several security and privacy concerns, including eavesdropping, jamming, denial of service attacks, and data breaches. This research provides a comprehensive overview of the security and privacy issues in IoD, including the attack and threat types and the corresponding mitigation techniques. The research includes an examination of the current security mechanisms, such as cryptography, access control, intrusion detection, and authentication, and their effectiveness in addressing IoD's security and privacy challenges. The study also explores emerging security paradigms, such as blockchain, artificial intelligence, and machine learning, and their potential to enhance IoD's security and privacy. The results of this research aim to offer valuable insights for both researchers and practitioners. These insights can be instrumental in designing secure and efficient IoD networks, facilitating the safe and effective deployment of drone-based applications, and ensuring the protection of sensitive data and privacy.</p> Anil Sezgin Aytuğ Boyacı Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Aeronautics and Space Technologies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-04-05 2024-04-05 17 Special Issue 219 235 First Reaction Wheel Qualified for Space in Türkiye https://jast.hho.msu.edu.tr/index.php/JAST/article/view/570 <p>Reaction Wheels are the equipment used to control the position and attitude of satellites precisely. They must operate almost without any interruption during the lifetime of the satellite. The Reaction Wheel, developed by TUBİTAK UZAY for IMECE satellite, provides satisfying performance in terms of momentum storage, torque, and wheel speed measurement, as well as zero-crossing and micro-vibration features to gain space heritage. This paper comprehensively studies the reaction wheel, including its components, environmental tests, applied loads, balance, and micro-vibration activities. The subject emphasizes the technical complexities involved with the design and execution of such a complex electro-mechanical system and the key factors and challenges encountered during its development. Furthermore, this study thoroughly summarizes the testing methods used to verify the reaction wheel's performance under various environmental conditions and varying loads.</p> Ali Özdemir Baris Colak Saban Otenkaya Burak Selamlar Mustafa Emre Öncüler Süleyman Çetinkaya Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Aeronautics and Space Technologies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-04-05 2024-04-05 17 Special Issue 236 261 Best Practices for Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing of Minisatellite Optimal Attitude Control https://jast.hho.msu.edu.tr/index.php/JAST/article/view/599 <p>This study investigates the application of an optimal control algorithm to solve a satellite attitude control problem. The study entails obtaining the satellite equations of motion through the establishment of both the kinematics and dynamics equations. The nonlinear state-space equations are formulated, and a dimension reduction technique is employed prior to linearization to ensure the controllability of the system. The aforementioned control system theory is elucidated, and simulations are performed to assess the efficacy of the controller. The employed control structure in this research is an LQR controller. To significantly enhance the dependability of the control algorithm, a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) structure is built utilizing the cRIO-9045 embedded controller device. The establishment of the human-machine interface was achieved by utilizing a Host PC and the real-time controller. The HIL setup and communication diagram are thoroughly elucidated. The control algorithm is evaluated on a real-time device by implementing a real-time tracking scenario. The results demonstrate that the satellite successfully tracks the provided reference signals as required.</p> Emre Sayin Ismail Bayezit Serhat Yilmaz Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Aeronautics and Space Technologies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2024-04-05 2024-04-05 17 Special Issue 262 273